Carrots can have different shapes, depending on the type of carrot. This vegetable can be elongated, in the form of a cylinder, the tip is sharp or round. Also, carrots may differ in taste, that is, in the proportion of sweetness. The vegetable can grow juicy, large, and smooth, or dry and gnarled. For this, it is important to choose the right variety and proper care. Carrots can have different ripening times.
The main varieties of carrots
The vegetable has seven varieties: Nantes, Amsterdam, Berilicum, Parisian carotel, Flacquet, Chantenay, and mini carrots.
Variety type Amsterdam
Amsterdam carrots have an average length of up to 15 centimeters, their shape is cylindrical, and the tip is blunt. Such a vegetable ripens early, so it is used fresh for summer cooking, for example, you can make salads, juices and other dishes. Carrots are juicy and sweet, have thin skin, so there is no need to peel them. The vegetable itself is not strong enough for long storage. The Amsterdam species includes the following varieties: Pharaoh, Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Tushon, Amsterdam.
Variety type Nantes
The most famous cultivar is the Nantes vegetable cultivar. Such carrots can have an early, middle and late ripening period, it is large, its length reaches 30 centimeters, and its circumference is up to 4. All varieties of this type are cylindrical in shape, they have a sweet and juicy pulp, as well as a thin middle part. The following varieties belong to the Nantes species: Yaroslavna, Samson, Yaskravaya, Nanteskaya Kharkovskaya, Rogneda, Forto, Napoli, monanta, nerak, Karadek, Sirkana, Kabana and others.
Flakke cultivar (Valeria)
The Flakke carrot is a late species and is used for winter storage. The vegetable has the shape of a cone or spindle, the dimensions are medium, the length can reach 25 centimeters, and the circumference is up to 5, the core is large. This variety has its drawbacks, for example, the vegetable contains a minimum amount of carotene. The following varieties belong to the Flakke species: Rote Riesen, Flakke, Vita Longa, Flakkenaria, Autumn Karol, Flakke Agroni, Karotan, Victoria.
The Chantenay variety has a large circumference of up to 6 centimeters, and a small length - up to 12 centimeters. The vegetable grows in the form of a cone, has a large middle, and a blunt tip. It is used fresh, it is poorly stored. This type includes: Shantenay royal and squirish, Shantenay royal, Darunok, Krasa Devitsa, Kuroda, Cascade, Katerina, Red Cor and others.
Variety Berlikum (Berlikum)
Berlikum carrots contain a significant amount of carotene, they are cone-shaped, up to 25 centimeters long, and up to 5 centimeters in circumference. Such carrots have a long shelf life, are juicy, and have high taste. This variety contains a sufficient amount of sugar, thanks to this, it is used for mashed potatoes, fruit salads or juices. This variety includes: Berlikum Royal, Morevna, Darina, Lakomka, Berski, Bangor.
Variety type Mini carrots
Mini carrots can be frozen or canned and are short and thin. This variety ripens quickly, so it is used fresh, it includes: Parmex, Minicor, Khibiny, Gregory and Mignon.
Variety Parisian carotel
The Parisian carrot also has a short length, up to 10 centimeters, the shape of the vegetable is round, such carrots can crack. The carotene content is high, but it is used only fresh, since the vegetable does not have a long shelf life. This type includes: Polar cranberry, Parisian carotel, Alenka, Carotel.
Transitional varieties of carrots
The transitional varieties of carrots include Berlikum / Nantes, Flacque / Carotennaya and Chantenay / Danvers.
The fruits of the Nantes type "Berlikum" have a blunt tip and a cylindrical shape, they are distinguished by high storage rates. The vegetable can be early or medium ripened. This type includes: Baby, Nandrin, Losinoostrovskaya, Baltimore. Carrots "Flakke Carotene" contain a sufficient amount of this substance, that is, carotene. The vegetable is thin and spindle-shaped with a sharp tip.
When choosing a variety, it is necessary to take into account what the vegetable will be used for, it can be stored all winter or immediately used in salads, prepare juices and other dishes. Also, the vegetable variety must be suitable for growing in the given climate conditions.
Seeds harvested at home can deteriorate over time and give a poor harvest, so it is better to purchase them in a special store. Carrots can differ in yield, shape and size of the fruit. Resistance to pests and diseases, and ripening time. That is, the shape of a carrot can be in the shape of a cone, cylinder or roundness, length from 10 to 30 centimeters, depending on the variety.
When choosing a site for planting carrots, it is necessary to take into account the type of soil, it must be fertile and loose, with neutral acidity. For this, loamy or sandy loam soils are suitable, a crust should not appear on the surface, that is, a sufficient amount of moisture is welcome, but not an excess.
Sowing carrots before winter is performed at the first frost, that is, in the eleventh month. The most suitable variety is the Nantes 4 carrot, the weight of the vegetable reaches 150 grams, its length is up to 15 centimeters, this type is not picky about the soil. But if clay prevails in the soil, then the fruits can change shape, that is, it will be in the form of a cone, not a cylinder. This type of vegetable has a long shelf life, contains a sufficient amount of carotene, which makes it possible to use it in the diet for children.
Before you start sowing carrots, you need to determine when you plan to get a ripe vegetable and what it will be used for.
Course work on the topic: Factors affecting the loss of fruit and vegetable products (page 1)
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Course work on the topic: Factors affecting the loss of fruit and vegetable products
Chapter 1. Literature Review 5
1.1 Classification and assortment of fruits and vegetables 5
1.2 Chemical composition and nutritional value of fruit and vegetable products 11
1.3 Factors affecting the loss of fruit and vegetable products 16
1.4 Types of commodity losses of fruits and vegetables and ways to reduce them 18
Chapter 2. Practical part 23
2.1 Brief description of the Dobrynya trade enterprise 23
2.2 Analysis of factors affecting the loss of fruit and vegetable products 25
2.3 Examination of the quality of fruit and vegetable products 30
Popular potato varieties: advantages and disadvantages
Potatoes are such a popular crop that breeders are working tirelessly to develop new varieties for good reason. The benefits of breeding work are obvious - potato varieties improve from year to year, but it is easy to get confused in the variety of varieties. The article will help you choose the potato variety that is most suitable for your site.
Modern potato varieties give large yields, are resistant to diseases and pests, are well stored and much tastier than incomprehensible potato varieties inherited from your grandmother or taken from a neighbor who gave you a couple of buckets of seed potatoes out of the kindness of his heart.
By buying a certain variety of potatoes from a seed farm or from a gardening store, you get a product with specific characteristics. Yes, each potato variety has varietal characteristics that make it easy to distinguish one variety from another: color, weight and shape of tubers, keeping quality, taste, transportability, etc.
Be aware that all popular potato varieties are patented, so commercial potato cultivation will have to pay royalties, which are usually included in the cost of supplying seed tubers. And it is also forbidden to modify the variety at your own discretion. Of course, in the country you can experiment as you please, but you also need to remember about protecting the rights of the creators of potato varieties.
The table describes the most popular potato varieties sorted by ripening time: early, medium early, late varieties. For each variety, data on average and maximum yield are given, as well as advantages and disadvantages.
If your favorite potato variety is missing here, write a request in the comments and it will be added to the table!
Methodology for state variety testing of agricultural crops Release of fourth potatoes, vegetables and melons (p. 9)
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Vegetables Agribusiness Methods Agriculture Agricultural equipment Variety testing
The experiment is carried out in 4-6 repetitions. The accounting area of the plot is at least 5 sq. m. Lateral protective strips with a width of no less than the experimental plot are sown mainly with the same variety as the adjacent plot. The end protectors are allocated at least 1.5 m, and during irrigation - at least 2 m.To prevent mixing of varieties, paths are left between the plots with a width of 50 cm.
Seeds are pickled before sowing. Sowing is carried out at the optimum time.
The seeding rate of varieties of different ripeness groups is calculated taking into account local agrotechnical recommendations.
The seeds are mixed with nitragin or its analogue before sowing.
Accounts and observations. After the emergence of full shoots, the end protectors are separated from the counting part of the plot by pulling the cord and pulling out in a row 2 - 3 plants adjacent to the cord from the side of the defense. After that, offsets are noted on the accounting parts of the plots.
The plant density is determined in three places along the diagonal of the plot per 1 linear meter. m (only 3 running meters).
On one of the repetitions, the dates are marked:
beginning (10%) and full (75%) shoots
beginning (10%) and mass (75%) flowering
mass technical ripeness (by finometer)
When tested on mature seeds, the beginning of biological maturation of the lower beans and mass biological maturation of the beans are noted.
During flowering and before harvesting, varietal impurities are identified and counted, which are distinguished by plant height, flowering time, flower color, bean shape, leaf size and other characteristics. All contaminated plants after counting are immediately removed both from the plot and from the end protectors.
The determination of the suitability for mechanized harvesting and the resistance of the variety to lodging is carried out in two non-adjacent repetitions, during the period of the onset of mass technical ripeness. To do this, in five places of the plot, 5 plants of the variety are measured, determining the actual height of the plants, the total length of the stems and the height of the lower beans (the distance from the soil surface to the top of the first bean - its lower point). Lodging resistance of a variety is expressed by the ratio of the average actual plant height to the average stem length in percent.
Harvesting and accounting of the harvest. The harvest of green peas and its quality depend on the period of harvest. The earlier the peas are harvested, the higher their taste and nutritional qualities, but the lower the yield. A delay in harvesting even by one day significantly increases the yield of green peas, but reduces its quality, therefore, it is possible to compare varieties in terms of yield and product quality only if they are harvested at the same optimal stage of ripeness.
To correctly choose the optimal harvesting period for peas for green peas, you need an objective way to determine its ripeness (by hardness) on a finometer. To do this, when technically ripe beans appear on average on two or three fertile nodes, several plants are taken in two places of the plot in such a way that one instrument cup of green peas can be husked. The green mass of the test sheaf is weighed (subsequently, its weight is added to the total weight of the green mass during harvesting - the entire plot). Ripe beans are husked, peas are poured into the glass of the device on the shoulders and the hardness (ripeness) of the peas is determined. One such sample is taken from each plot of the variety. The optimal ripeness of the town, with its highest quality, corresponds to 40 - 42 divisions of the indicator of the device. If the difference in hardness values for repetitions is within the normal range (1 - 2 divisions), then all plots with a hardness of 40 - 42 divisions are removed in one day. If, on some plots, the peas have a hardness of less than 40, then the harvesting of these plots should be carried out later, until the peas reach a hardness of 40 divisions.
Before harvesting, the accounting area of the plots is finally established.
Different varieties of peas are characterized by different resistance to overripening. Some of them overripe in one or two days, others retain high quality grain for 6 or more days. For agricultural production and the food industry, the most valuable varieties are that do not overripe for a long time.
To assess varieties for resistance to overripening in one of the repetitions, the protectors from one (inner) end of the plots are left uncleared, on which, on the third day after the main harvest, the degree of peas overripening is determined on the finometer.
Crop accounting. Plants are mowed, weighed in repetitions, and average samples of the variety are taken with a mass: the first - 5 kg, the second - 2.5 kg. The first sample is threshed on a small-sized thresher, peas are cleaned of leaves on an inclined plane or a hill, weighed and its yield is determined (in% of green mass). Threshing can also be carried out on pea threshers used in production. Beans are cut off from the second sample, the percentage of beans yield from the green mass is determined, then, taking (without selection) from this sample 1 kg of beans, the percentage of peas from the bean sample is determined. If the variety plot does not have the ability to thresh peas on threshers, one sample weighing 5 kg is taken, technically ripe beans are picked off the plants by hand and weighed. After that, an average sample of beans weighing 1.5 kg is taken, the peas are husked on a laboratory cultivator or manually, weighed and the percentage of peas out of the beans is determined.
The output of peas from green mass (in%) is found by the formula:
A is the mass of the average sample of plants, kg
B - mass of technically ripe beans of the sample, kg
B - output of peas from beans,%.
By recalculation, the yield of green peas is determined (in c / ha) by repetitions and on average for the variety and the average yield of green mass (as an indicator of assessing the fodder significance of the variety).
Evaluation of the quality of peas. After weighing, the green peas husked from the sample are passed through sieves with openings of 5, 7, 9 and 10 mm. Each fraction is weighed and its percentage of the total weight of the weight sample is calculated.
For smooth-grain varieties, peas with a size of 5 - 7 mm are considered high-quality, permissible - smaller than 5 mm and from 7 to 9 mm inclusive, peas larger than 9 mm are considered a marriage. In varieties with brain grain, peas of this size are not rejected.
Determine the color of the peas (dark green, light green, whitish). In terms of quality, dark-colored green peas are rated higher than light-colored ones.
Tasting. Fresh peas of each variety, husked from samples, are distributed to tasters under the numbers.
The taste of peas is evaluated in points:
The roughness of the skin is assessed on a 3-point scale:
The general assessment of the quality of the pea variety is given in points (from 5 to 1).
Technological assessment of pea varieties in canned crops is carried out in the laboratories of the State Sort Commission or at canneries.
VARIETY OF BEET AND CARROT
The beet and carrot varieties are tested at spring sowing.
According to biological characteristics (early maturity, leafiness), varieties of table carrots are divided into two groups:
more early ripening and less leafy varieties (cultivar Nantes)
less early ripening and more leafy varieties (cultivar Chantenay).
Table beet varieties are divided into two main groups:
rounded or flat (beet varieties of Bordeaux, Egyptian, respectively)
cylindric (varieties Erfurt, Zelenolistnaya).
Food areas are set depending on the variety belonging to a particular group. So, for example, for the varieties of carrots of the first group, the area is set - nutrition is less than for varieties of the second group.
Table root crops at the variety section are sown in a manner common in collective and state farms in the zone of activity of the variety section (wide-row, two-line or three-line tapes). The row spacing for all varieties should be the same, in accordance with local agricultural recommendations and agricultural practices adopted at the variety plot. The feeding area for varieties is regulated by the distance between plants in a row.
The experiment is laid in 4 - 6-fold repetition on plots with an accounting area of at least 10 square meters for beets. m, for carrots - 5 sq. m.
The plot should have at least four rows or two belts, and in more northern areas - at least three rows. When sowing on ridges in three lines, the plot can consist of one ridge.
End protectors are installed on the dry land at least 1.5 m, during irrigation - at least 2 m. Lateral protective strips between adjacent crops should be at least one plot wide. Longitudinal protective stripes between groups of varieties, as well as between repetitions, are not distinguished.
Before sowing, the seeds should be treated with an approved preparation. All work on sowing and caring for plants is carried out in accordance with the advanced agricultural technology for the area of activity of the variety section.
It should be borne in mind that with very early crops and a prolonged cold spring, beet plants bloom.
Accounts and observations. Phenological observations are carried out one repetition. Celebrate dates:
beginning (10%) and full (75%) shoots
beginning of bunch and full technical (commercial) ripeness
The beginning of the bunch ripeness of the variety is determined by a sample of 40 - 60 plants from all repetitions. A sample of 10 plants is taken from the end guards of each repetition.
The date when the sample contains about 10% of edible root crops is taken as the beginning of bunch ripeness. Beet tuft ripeness occurs when the beet root crops in the transverse diameter reach 3 cm or more, carrots - 1 cm or more.
Harvesting and accounting of the harvest. Harvesting begins as each variety reaches full technical ripeness, when at least 75% of the variety's root crops reach the size of marketable ones. Root crops of each variety should be harvested in a timely manner from all repetitions of the variety in one day, without waiting for the technical ripeness of other varieties.
In northern conditions, where root crops do not reach technical ripeness, harvesting is carried out before the onset of frost within the time frame provided for by the adopted agricultural technology.
Similar dissertations in the specialty "Breeding and seed production", 06.01.05 code VAK
Evaluation of the initial material of the species Raphanus Sativus L. using reproductive biology methods for breeding for heterosis 2005, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Zayachkovskaya, Tatiana Vladimirovna
Theory and practice of creating heterotic hybrids of sugar beet based on CMS 2007, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Volgin, Vyacheslav Viktorovich
Some aspects of breeding bulbous lilies 2001, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Martynova, Valentina Vladimirovna
Creation of heterotic F1 tomato hybrids for open ground based on functional male sterility 2000, candidate of agricultural sciences Kharchenko, Viktor Aleksandrovich
Biological and technological substantiation of seed production of F1 hybrids of white cabbage 2008, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Patsuria, Dzheneri Vladimirovich
Carrots are sometimes affected by diseases and pests. The most terrible diseases are:
- rot (gray, white, black, red).
Bacteriosis is spread by seeds and contaminated plant debris, so after harvesting, remove the tops of carrots from the garden, and subject the seeds to hot water (52 ºC) before sowing. Almost all vegetables are affected by white and gray rot during storage. To avoid contamination, powder the roots with chalk before storing. It is also important to observe the storage conditions for carrots and to provide good ventilation in the warehouse.
Red rot appears as brown or purple spots on roots. The disease is provoked by the introduction of manure into the soil. Black rot looks like coal-black rotten areas on a root crop, most of all it is dangerous for the testes of carrots. Diseased plants are immediately removed.
Affects carrots and septoria, which is manifested by chlorotic small spots on carrot leaves, which eventually turn brown, surrounded by a red rim. In conditions of high humidity, the disease spreads very quickly.
At the first signs of the manifestation of the disease, the site is treated several times with an interval of 10 days with Bordeaux liquid (1%), and heavily affected plants must be removed and destroyed from the site, like plant residues after harvest.
Phomosis affects the stems of the testes and inflorescences of carrots, then brown spots are formed on the upper part of the root crop, gradually affecting the entire root crop. The disease develops faster on light soils. As a preventive measure, treat the seeds before sowing with a 0.5% Tigam solution, and immediately remove the diseased plants.
Of the pests, the danger to carrots is:
- carrot fly
- winter scoop
Slugs must be collected by hand. If there are a lot of them, then jars of beer are dug into the soil, to the smell of which the mollusks slide down. To scare away gastropods from carrots, you can scatter dusty superphosphate, ash or needles over the area. To get rid of the wireworm, small holes are dug on the site, half-rotted grass, pieces of raw potatoes are placed in them, the hole is sprinkled with earth and the place is marked with a peg. After a few days, a hole is dug up and the larvae gathered there are destroyed.
The caterpillars of the winter moth damage the ground parts of the carrots and gnaw at the roots and stems. They are destroyed with the help of insecticides (Ambush, Cyanox, Anometrin, Revikurt, Etaphos).
Carrot flies can be scared away by planting onions between the rows of carrots.
BREEDING TECHNIQUE FOR SEPARATE CHARACTERS
When breeding for yield such signs and properties as biological adaptability to soil and climatic conditions, responsiveness to fertilizers and irrigation, response to planting density, resistance to diseases and pests are very important. The optimal ratio of the xylem and phloem parts of the Root crop is of great importance for the productivity of carrot plants. A sharp decrease in the xylem part will inevitably cause a decrease in plant productivity, since xylem is a tissue that conducts water and substances soluble in it. Research by NIIOCh scientists have shown that in order to obtain a high yield of good quality, the diameter of the xylem part of the root crop must be at least 25-35% of the total diameter of the root crop.
The high productivity of plants is determined not only by the development of the assimilation apparatus, but also by the actively working root system. To ensure the necessary development of the lateral root system without increasing the coarseness of the carrot root tissue, when selecting, root crops with a large number of shallow, but wide enough lentils should be taken.
The existing varieties in varietal and hybrid populations have biotypes that differ in response to thickening. Some of them, while thickening and increasing the feeding area, retain their characteristic root size - these are early maturing, relatively small-rooted varieties (Amsterdam, Khibinskaya, etc.). In others, there is a sharp reaction to a change in the area of u200b u200bfeeding. When it rises, the size of the root crop increases and, consequently, the yield increases. When plants of this group thicken, they behave differently: in some, the size of the root crop decreases sharply, and a large number of underruns accumulates in the harvest, while in others, the size of the root crop and a small number of underflows persist. Consequently, when breeding carrots for yield, the original population must be dismembered with a thinned and thickened crop. A similar phenomenon is observed in beets, radishes and other root crops. Carrot varieties Nantskaya 4, Shantenet 2461, Losinoostrovskaya 13 show high tolerance to thickening (up to 1.0-1.2 million plants per hectare).
The use of heterosis in breeding opens up broad prospects for increasing the productivity of root crops. A high general combinative ability in terms of yield was established in the varieties Khibinskaya Greenhouse and Nantskaya 4.
Carrot varieties Nantskaya 4, Losinoostrovskaya 13, Chantenay 2461, Nantes Goriyskaya and a number of varieties from Denmark, Canada, Argentina, Australia, France, Great Britain, etc. can be used as a starting material for the selection and production of hybrid populations in breeding for yield. In the region from the world gene pool, the best in terms of productivity are the varieties Mirza yellow 304, Mshaki surkh, Mirza red 228. Unlike European varieties, these varieties are characterized by high germination energy (90-100% of laboratory germination) and field germination. Bordeaux 237, Cold-resistant 19, Leningradskaya rounded 221/17, Pushkinskaya ploskaya, Polar ploskaya, Northern ball radish varieties Virovsky red, Iyg-eva 169, Saksa, Early red, Zarya, Teplichny, Heat, Shar-lakhovy are distinguished by high yields. ball, Wurzburg 59, Chinese, Dungan, Moscow greenhouse, Ice icicle.
Breeding for early maturity is carried out by the selection of plants with a fast growth rate of the root crop. The early maturing type of root crop is characterized by a small leaf rosette (10-15% of the total weight of the plant). However, the selection of plants with very small rosettes and thin leaf petioles should be carried out taking into account the size of the root crop. Otherwise, such selection can lead to a decrease in productivity. Within one culture, early ripening plants have a higher root to leaf mass ratio than late ripening plants.
Consequently, observations of the dynamics of yield formation should be carried out taking into account the development of vegetative mass, the mass of the root crop and their ratio, the accumulation of carotene in carrots, anthocyanins in beets, as well as sugars and the ratio of monosaccharides to polysaccharides as an indicator of the degree of maturity of the root crop.
The selection of root crops should be carried out at early sowing times in typical conditions for early varieties, and assessment and selection should be carried out at typical times of early harvesting, followed by planting the selected root crops in the ground by a bridge method and harvesting them in the autumn for laying for winter storage (carrots, beets and etc.). For a qualitative assessment of the root crop in carrots, it is cut by 1/3 of the length, and the "cheeks" of beets are cut off by 1/3 of the root pod. The cut off pieces of root vegetables can be used to assess the chemical parameters. In autumn, by the time of harvesting, the planted root crops take root and form a small rosette of leaves.
When determining the percentage of the mass of plants and the mass of root crops according to the samples taken (they are taken every 5-10 days, starting from the beginning of bunch ripeness), the color of the pulp, the content of dry matter in the cell juice (in%), as well as the number of cracked root crops are taken into account in the cross section ... The latter also characterizes the degree of maturity.
When breeding for early maturity, correlations of traits are also used: a small head, a small rosette of leaves, thin leaf petioles, a blunt root vegetable base, a rapid accumulation of carotene in carrots, a thin axial root, and a shortened form of a root vegetable in beets. Selection for early maturity sometimes leads to a decrease in the quality of the root crop and an increase in flowering, therefore, in parallel, selection for flowering and high quality of root crops is carried out. Beet varieties Pushkinskaya flat, Egyptian flat, Gribovsky flat, Polar flat and other varieties of carrots Khibinsky, Parisian Karotel 443, Amsterdam, Nantes, Mshak 195, etc. are distinguished by high early maturity.
When breeding for adaptability to mechanized cultivation and harvesting, one should take into accountthat the main conditions for the mechanization of cultivation and harvesting of root crops is their culture without thinning the shoots and the amicable onset of the technical ripeness of root crops. This goal can be achieved by enlarging seeds and increasing their field germination (carrots), as well as breeding single-seeded varieties with high seed germination energy and large seedlings (table beet).
In existing varieties of carrots and beets, the strength of the attachment of the tops to the head of the root crop is quite sufficient for harvesting root crops with top-lifting machines, and special selection for this characteristic is not required for these crops.
When harvesting carrots with preliminary cutting of the tops, an erect rosette of leaves and a uniform arrangement of the head of root crops relative to the soil surface are required. When breeding for mechanized harvesting, the selection should be carried out on the head slightly submerged in the soil, which will simultaneously reduce the accumulation of chlorophyll in the head and improve the quality of root crops. To reduce the contamination of root crops during mechanized harvesting, it is necessary to select for their smooth surface without a coarse lateral root system. For this, the selection of carrot root crops is carried out on shallow, but wide lentils.
When assessing breeding material for the formation of root crops it is important to study the population by the composition of biotypes that react differently to thickening. According to the Department of Vegetable Growing at the TSKhA, a more harmonious onset of the technical ripeness of root crops was observed with a configuration of the feeding area close to a square.
Selection for single-seeded beet varieties is carried out in two ways.
In the first case, single-seeded plants are selected in elite and varietal plantings of the best zoned varieties. Selected plants are isolated. If the selected plants are freely re-pollinated, then in the first generation, due to the recessiveness of single-seededness, selection does not begin in the second generation. At the same time, tens of thousands of plants are analyzed. In the future, inzukht and family selection with the isolation of families are used. Before flowering, seed plants with polyspermous glomeruli are rejected. Selected plants must contain at least 80% single or two-seeded fruits. At the same time, the selected plants are evaluated according to the productivity and quality of root crops. To increase the yield and taste, it is recommended to carry out backcrossing of single-sprout forms with the best zoned varieties of table beet, similar in morphological characteristics and industrial use. With such cross-pollination, single-seededness is preserved and at the same time the productivity of seeds increases due to their heterozygosity. This method was used to create zoned varieties Odnorostkovaya (VNIISSOK), Khavskaya (Voronezh Experimental Station), Dvusemyannaya (TSKHA).
The second direction of selection of beets for single-seededness is hybridization of multi-seeded varieties of table beets with single-seeded varieties of table and sugar beets. In the latter case, selection is complicated by the need to restore the characteristics of beet in hybrids by backcrossing beet samples. New varieties of single-seeded beets Ros' and Skvirskiy Dar were obtained by the method of hybridization at the Skvirskaya Experimental Station.
One-sprout forms of beets, in contrast to multi-sprout ones, have reduced seed productivity and poorer sowing qualities of seeds. According to GOST 28676.4-90, for single-germ forms, the germination rate of class I seeds is not lower than 70%, for class II - not less than 50%, and for multi-germ forms - 80 and 60%, respectively. The presence of polyspermous glomeruli is allowed in seeds of classes I and II not less than 15%. Therefore, when obtaining single-seeded beet varieties, selection is carried out at the same time for yield and seed size, increased germination energy and germination capacity, enlarged seedling and high field germination of seeds. In the production of superelite seeds, family selection is used with an assessment in nurseries of testing the offspring of mothers and testes (at least 100 families are tested). On elite plantings, before flowering, a varietal survey and varietal cleanings are carried out with the removal of plants with polyspermous glomeruli.
When breeding for quality improvement take into account the following features: uniformity in size, shape, color of root crops, inherent color and consistency of the pulp, sugar content, carotene content in carrots and anthocyanins in beets, weak annularity in beets, vitamins and other biologically active substances, taste resistance to flowers, nitrates content.
Since the biological and dietary value of root crops has not been determined enough, it is necessary to expand research in this direction. When breeding carrots to increase the content of carotene, it should be borne in mind that the yellow pigments of carrots contain apigenin, which has a valuable property to relieve fatigue of the heart muscle.
A decrease in the xylem part of the root crop causes a decrease in yield. In addition, it has been observed that the yellow pigmentation of the xylem is often associated with increased plant productivity. This necessitates the selection of carrots not only for a high content of carotene in the phloem, but also for an average xylem size (25–30% of the diameter) with the retention of yellow pigments in the xylem part of the root crop. Taking into account this requirement, the Losinoostrovskaya 13 carrot variety was created.
When evaluating and selecting carrot root crops for nitrate content, one should take into accountthat the content of nitrates in the bark is 2-7 times lower than in the core of a certain zone of the root crop. And along the height of the root crop in the bark, the content of nitrates decreases from the head downwards, and in the core - vice versa.
Carrot varieties Nantskaya 4, Nantskaya 14, Losinoostrovskaya 13, Shantene 2461, Konservnaya, Biryuchekutskaya are valuable sources for breeding to increase the content of carotene, Sakharov. According to biochemical characteristics, carrot varieties Nantskaya 4, Nesravnennaya, Leningradskaya 13, F1 Callisto are ecologoplastic.
Varieties intended for the canning industry must retain good color, taste, and pulp density during canning and drying.
An important point in cold tolerance breeding is the cultivation and evaluation of plants under provocative conditions. In this case, special attention should be paid to the parallel selection for non-color.
To obtain varieties that are resistant to prolonged frosts and varieties of winter beets, VT Krasochkin recommends the use of hybridization of table beets with fodder beets of the Barres variety, as well as with Scandinavian wild beets and winter-hardy mountain beets. Work at the NIIOKh and at the Gribovskaya Vegetable Breeding Experimental Station showed that an effective method is multiple selection under winter culture. To increase the cold resistance of plants, the method of selection of seedlings with the highest vigor of growth at a temperature 2-4 ° C lower than the optimum for the culture with which the selection work is carried out is also used, developed at the NIIOKh.
To assess the cold resistance of beets seed germination is used at a low temperature (about +3 ° C) in a cold chamber for 28 days. The varieties Podzimnyaya A-474, Polyarnaya ploskaya, Pushkinskaya ploskaya show high cold resistance. To assess frost resistance, direct freezing of plants in special chambers is used. Plants in the phase of 8-10 leaves are most resistant to frost (-7 ° C). High frost resistance was shown by the varieties Severny Shar, Cold-resistant 19, Detroit. This indicator is of great importance for the non-planting method of growing beet seeds.
Evaluation of beets for salt tolerance is carried out by germinating seeds in rearing houses on folded filters moistened with chemically pure table salt. The osmotic pressure of the solutions is 9 and 10 atm. Salt-resistant samples are considered with seed germination of more than 50%, medium-salt-resistant - 10-50% and slightly salt-resistant - less than 10%. High salt tolerance is shown by the varieties Early miracle, Nosovskaya ploskaya, Incomparable.
The drought resistance of the variety is established by germinating seeds in a sucrose solution. Seeds of more drought tolerant varieties germinate better in sucrose solution as a result of greater suction power or less water requirement. The beet varieties Donskaya flat, Kubanskaya borsch, Digomskaya, Zelenolistnaya 42 exhibit high drought resistance.
To assess the resistance of beets to flowering, two methods are used. The first is the cultivation of plants in the field during early spring and sub-winter sowing or sowing in the more northern regions of the country. In the second method, plants are grown in climatic chambers with preliminary germination of seeds at a low temperature. The beet varieties Podzimnyaya A-474, Polar flat, Northern ball, Cold-resistant 19 show resistance to flowering.
Keeping quality is determined by a whole range of features: resistance to diseases, a strong anatomical structure of tissues, the speed of corking the surface of damaged root crops, the intensity of respiration during storage, the activity of differentiation of growth points.
Varieties with increased keeping quality include: for carrots - Valeria, Incomparable, Moscow winter A-515, Shante-ne 2461, Canning for beets - Northern ball, Polar flat, Podzimnyaya A-474, Incomparable A-463, Donskaya flat, Kuban borscht 43, Pushkinskaya flat, Khavskaya one-seeded, Pushkinskaya and Leningradskaya one-two-seeded. Breeding for disease resistance is carried out throughout the breeding process. The main and most harmful diseases of carrots are sclerotiniasis, al-ternariosis, beet phomosis - peronosporosis, clump rot, cabbage root crop - keela. Carrot varieties Losinoostrovskaya 13, Nantskaya gory-skaya, Urozhainaya Agapova, Moskovskaya winter A-515 are relatively resistant to phomosis to diseases of decay - Nanteskaya 4, Shantenet 2461, Konservnaya. The beet varieties Kubanskaya borshchivaya 43, Leningradskaya rounded, Donskaya flat are relatively resistant to tserkospo-rose.