The main amount of nutrients is obtained from the soil in the form of saturated aqueous solutions. Over time, the land becomes poorer, and the garden requires additional feeding. In autumn, this is important not only for young trees and seedlings, but also for adults growing on sandy and sandy loam soils. In order to choose the right top dressing, you need to understand the benefits of each. Then the garden will certainly delight you with a rich harvest.
Humus is an organic fertilizer that improves almost any type of soil. It is rich in nutrients, absorbs and retains moisture well. Heavy clay soil makes humus loose, enriches with oxygen. With its help, sandy soil can be moistened and significantly increase the amount of nutrients. Mulch from high-quality humus creates a special environment in the upper layers of the soil. The necessary moisture is collected under it, earthworms and bacteria settle, which are necessary for the full functioning of the root system. So the soil retains the temperature well: it slowly heats up and cools down. In autumn and winter, humus perfectly protects fruit trees from unexpected frosts, rain and wind. In specialized markets, you can buy packaged humus, but it is more profitable to buy a large amount of manure on the farm and prepare fertilizer yourself.
For autumn soil enrichment, pre-prepared compost is often used. Well-rotted leaves and grass do not burn tree roots and serve as a mild organic fertilizer. Compost perfectly complements any type of feeding. It is convenient to make a protective mulch from it, which does not allow the root system to rot or freeze. And in spring, during the active melting of snow, a layer of organic fertilizers will become additional food for the soil. Experienced summer residents prepare compost all summer and autumn in special pits or boxes. The finished fertilizer is dark in color and smells like wet forest soil. If winter is already on the doorstep, and the compost is not yet ready, you can use special preparations that accelerate its maturation. It is recommended to apply 5-6 kg per 1 m every 2 years.2 area of the trunk circle.
Vermicompost is another type of organic fertilizer with an exceptional composition. For its formation, worms and their waste products are used. Its main task is to optimize the soil structure, which in turn provides a healthy microflora around the root system of fruit trees.Due to its rich mineral composition (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron), vermicompost improves the survival rate of young seedlings, increases productivity and accelerates fruit ripening. It is also good because it does not contain parasites and insect larvae. In autumn, young fruit trees are watered with a saturated solution of fertilizers (1 kg of concentrated vermicompost per 10 liters of water), 2 liters of such a solution will replace up to 50 kg of manure.
It is a versatile fertilizer that has proven itself in dry and diluted form. Wood ash is saturated with potassium and does not contain nitrogen. Thanks to such feeding, the stems of young seedlings are strengthened, the general immunity of the tree is increased, which helps it to survive the winter. Also, the presence of a sufficient amount of potassium prevents the untimely ripening of fruits in too young trees. Ash reduces acidity and enriches the soil with useful microelements that are necessary for the growing season. It is recommended to use such dressing both in pure form and as an additive to other organic fertilizers (250 g per 1 m2).
Wood sawdust is composed of fiber, a large amount of resins and essential oils, so it is great for various garden crops, including fruit trees. The main task of such fertilization is to protect the root system from frost and wind. A large amount of carbon enriches the soil, improves microflora and soil. In addition, annoying weeds will not grow on fertilized soil in the spring. In drought, wet sawdust will shelter the root system from the sun and saturate the soil with moisture. When using sawdust, it is important to remember that they strongly oxidize the soil. To neutralize them, they are combined with wood ash or other less "acidic" fertilizers. Allow them to refill with water before use.
Fertilizers from peat
Peat fertilizers stimulate the growth and productivity of fruit trees. This is the result of a natural increase in the amount of humus in the soil. Peat is a versatile fertilizer that can be used annually for both young seedlings and mature trees. It carefully protects the root system from nitrates and toxic substances that have entered the soil, retains moisture and microflora.In nature, peat is formed in a swamp, in places of high humidity with low oxygen levels. It can also be purchased at specialized horticultural markets. Summer residents recommend active feeding in mid-September, early October. At this time, the root system of fruit trees is actively developing and is saturated with nutrients from the soil. Autumn soil enrichment measures provide the garden with protection from infections and parasites, frost and wind, and also promise a rich harvest.
What mineral fertilizers are applied to the garden and vegetable garden in the fall?
The most important elements for plants in autumn are phosphorus and potassium, which promote the growth of the root system, as well as increase the resistance of plants to diseases and adverse weather conditions. Most garden fertilizers are applied in the fall with an eye to planting next year. Let's see what fertilizers are classified as autumn and why they need to be applied at the end of the season - in the fall for digging.
The importance of the topic of choosing the right fertilizer for the garden grows from year to year. Of course, we want to grow a good harvest, which sometimes leads to the uncontrolled application of many mineral fertilizers to the soil, which accumulate in the soil in the form of salts and insoluble minerals, and cause irreparable damage to the soil cover. Soil resources are depleted, and we get nitrates unnecessary for health in fruits. What more modern and high-quality fertilizers do professionals offer?
Autumn fertilizers. How to fertilize correctly in the fall
Autumn fertilizers. How to fertilize correctly in the fall
Autumn is the time for finishing works in the gardens and orchards. Many gardeners have made sure from personal experience that applying autumn fertilizers has a beneficial effect on the quality of planting next year.
Let's figure it out what fertilizers should be applied in the fall, and which is better to refuse. And for what reasons.
Over the summer, the soil in the gardens has lost its nutritional properties to the maximum. Plants "pulled" from it the greatest amount of nutrients, so it is better to prepare the fertile layer in the fall. It is necessary to enrich it with micro and macro elements, organic compounds.
If the soil is clean from planting, perennial crops do not grow on it, and plants are not planted "for wintering", you can dig it up with the introduction of all kinds of fertilizers. Such fertilizers can be both compost, manure, and purchased granular fertilizers. The main thing is that the applied fertilizers are not washed away by autumn rains and spring melting of snow. For this, the fertilizers applied are dug up at least onto the bayonet of the shovel. You can add them in large quantities, because in the spring some part will still dissolve before planting. Although this is a big plus for applying fertilizers such as granulated chicken manure. Which, when applied in spring, can burn the roots of plants.
But you need to be careful with planted perennials, shrubs and trees. The introduction of fertilizers under such plants that do not correspond to the season can lead to their death.
It is strictly forbidden to apply nitrogen fertilizers for plants in the autumn. Nitrogen stimulates the growth of new growth on bushes, flowers and trees, which is highly undesirable in the fall. Young shoots will not have time to ripen, which means they will die in winter. The death of a part of a healthy plant can lead to various rot, the appearance of fungus and a decrease in immunity.
It is recommended to stop using nitrogen fertilizers from the beginning of August. Flowers, shrubs and trees will strengthen existing branches and prepare them for the cold winter months.
From granular fertilizers, it is recommended to choose phosphorus-containing fertilizers, as well as potash fertilizers. Potash can be added, both chloride and fertilizers that do not contain this element. During the season of autumn rains and spring floods, chlorine will have time to dissolve, and potassium will be well absorbed by plants at the beginning of the season. For the introduction of phosphorus, gardeners most often use double superphosphate. The phosphorus content in it is almost 50%.
Potassium and phosphorus help the root system of the plant to develop sufficient immunity to the winter cold, as well as to strengthen its aboveground part. With the introduction of potassium from the end of August, the shoots have time to ripen, and firmly endure the winter.
Potassium can also be used in conjunction with magnesium. This fertilizer is called potassium magnesium... Perennial crops also need magnesium in the fall. But it is better to apply such fertilizer in liquid form, and strictly observing the instructions for use measures.
Mulch is considered the main autumn fertilizer with the maximum organic matter content. Well-rotted manure, compost treated with a solution called "Baikal-Em-1", sawdust, peat, straw, husks from sunflower seeds, pine nut shells, needles of coniferous trees are suitable for this. Every gardener chooses the mulch that is more accessible to him and is best suited for a particular crop. Let's talk about the most popular types of mulch in a little more detail.
Rotten manure ... They bring it mainly under the digging of the upper fertile soil layer. This helps the micronutrients to be absorbed faster. They are also scattered in an even layer along the near-trunk circle of plants. It is important that the manure is well peeled, otherwise the roots of the plant will receive severe burns, which often lead to the death of the culture.
Manure brought in for digging, as well as laid on top, will gradually nourish the plant during the rainy autumn, maintain its strength during wintering, and give a good impetus to awakening in early spring. As, however, and other types of mulch. You should not get carried away with the introduction of such material along the near-barrel circle. It contains nitrogen, which is contraindicated for plants in the fall. Also, in contact with the branches or trunk of the plant, it can cause burns. It is not necessary to make such a top dressing annually, it is enough to use it once every 2 years.
Compost ... The most affordable of all types of mulch. Gardeners prepare the correct compost mainly according to this recipe: cut and dried grass is chopped. Then it is placed in a container (barrel, bath), moistened with a solution of "Baikal-EM-1", mixed. They let it stand a little (literally a couple of hours), put it in bags, letting the air out of them, tie it up. In this form, the compost is infused for a couple of weeks, after which it can be used. Such fertilizer should be applied after the soil has been well shed with water with the addition of the above preparation.
Compost can be made both from cut grass and from fallen leaves, for example, birch leaves. The advantage of fall foliage is that, unlike grass, they will definitely not have weed seeds. And then you don't have to fight the weeds. Also, birch compost gives a pleasant smell, unlike grass compost. It is better to make such mulch for digging.
Mulching of plants is very popular peat ... It is rich in organic acids. You can buy peat both in a gardening store and bring it from the forest. It is important to know that store-bought peat has already been treated against more parasites and weeds than hand-dug peat.
You can disinfect "wild" peat by sprinkling it for several days in the sun before using it. It is also important to remove all weed roots, if possible, so as not to suffer with them later. During the calcination of peat, many gardeners recommend spilling it with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. This is to disinfect the brought material. It is also worth treating with the previously described "Baikal" tool. In the fall, it is not necessary to use peat mulch for digging. It will be enough to distribute the material along the near-stem circle of plants. And in the spring you can already dig it up.
Sawdust and straw ... A very affordable material for creating mulch. So, for example, if straw can be bought for a small price, then sawdust on sawmills is usually given free of charge. It is recommended to mulch planting with these materials with a sufficiently thick layer. Usually it is about 10 centimeters. But with this type of mulching, it is important to remember that the lower layers tend to rot, infecting the plants themselves. Therefore, you need to adhere to some rules when using them.
First you need to treat the soil from various possible diseases. Fungal infections in the first place will spread rapidly under such a cover. Next, it is important to loosen the ground, let it dry a little, and re-treat it with an antiseptic. You can use copper sulfate or solution bordeaux liquid ... Then, in a thin layer, you can begin to mulch the earth, slightly mixing the mulch with the earth.
Next, you need to wait a day or two for the mulch layer to dry, and add a second layer, a little thicker. This layer, like the second one, should lie down, dry out within a few dry days. When the bulk of the mulch is laid, before the onset of cold weather, you can start mulching the final layer. With this introduction of sawdust and straw, fungal infections will not multiply, but the larvae of the parasites will suffocate.
Very helpful mulching the soil with pine nut shells ... The shell is rich in various micro and macro elements, tannins and various sugars. When mulching the soil with cedar shells, it is possible not to additionally disinfect the soil, and not to treat it against pests. This can of course be done, but by the way, this material itself has an antifungal and anti-harmful effect.
This mulch is probably one of the most useful. Rotting in such an environment is excluded, pests are also afraid of this material. Weeds do not germinate in such an environment. In addition to all the other advantages, pine nut shells also apply to decorative types of mulch. Most often used in flower beds. You need to bring it in with a layer of 5-10 centimeters. It is known that such mulch completely wastes its useful properties only after 5 years. But it is worth adding material periodically, annually, in small quantities. Among other things, when wet, the shell exudes a pleasant aroma and glossy shine.
No less popular with gardeners sunflower seed husks ... It allows moisture to be well retained; when embedded in the soil, it increases its air and water permeability. The main disadvantage in mulching with husks is the factor that it is quickly blown up by the wind, and can erode the pressure of water during irrigation. Therefore, it is best to lay a layer of straw on it in the fall. In the spring, mix well the husk of seeds with manure.
You can mulch the soil pine and spruce needles ... This material will protect plants well from cold weather. They also scare off various rodents and other pests. Inexpensive and practical material.You can use not only needles for mulching, but also pine and spruce litter, or cones. These materials also contain useful substances, but such mulch does not retain water well, therefore it is recommended to lay a layer of fallen leaves under it. It is especially good to use this mulch for conifers, strawberries and strawberries, roses, rhododendrons, raspberries, blueberries and fruit trees.
Almost all mulching materials acidify the soil. Therefore, in the spring, it is imperative to do a test for acidity of the earth so as not to reduce its fertility. This can be done with special liquids, devices, or test strips, which can be purchased at your garden store.
To reduce the acidity of the soil, use wood ash , which can be applied both in autumn and spring, the use of dolomite flour is also allowed.
Autumn dressing of a flower garden
Every amateur florist will make every effort to ensure a good wintering for their flowers. To do this, you need not only to cover the plants, but also to feed them in time. As well as for horticultural crops, the use of nitrogen fertilizers is not allowed, preference is given to phosphorus and potash. You can prepare a nutrient mix for flower crops as follows:
Roses perceive well a nutrient solution containing 16 g of potassium monophosphate and 15 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water, 2 liters of solution per 1 m 2 are added. It is also recommended to fertilize with a solution of wood ash (100 g per 10 l). In the fall, roses are fertilized twice: in early September and early October.
Mineral fertilizers from different companies differ in composition, therefore, when applying them, it is imperative to take into account the manufacturer's instructions. Exceeding the dosage of fertilization will not only reduce the frost resistance of plants, but may also affect the quality of berries and fruits next year.
What are you needed for, the benefits and harms of using
For good growth and fruiting of vegetable and fruit crops, external additives of nutrients are required. The latter are represented by mineral fertilizers for garden and garden plants. However, this does not mean that the drugs can be used at will, regardless of the peculiarities of the land plot.
The lack of each element affects the general condition of the garden culture. What are various mineral fertilizers for? To help plants grow, produce the expected yield and enrich or normalize the soil.
However, excessive application of drugs leads to excessive growth of the ground parts of the garden bush, loss of endurance and winter hardiness, and leaf fall.
Autumn fertilizers for the lawn
Many people think that for a beautiful lawn, you just need to get good seeds and mow an organic green "mat" on a regular basis. But this is not at all the case. Lawn grass, like other plants, requires care, including timely feeding. Popular autumn lawn fertilizers are bone meal (2-3 cups per square meter) and superphosphate (50 g per square meter).
Of the ready-made complex fertilizers, granular fertilizer of prolonged action Fertika lawn autumn, as well as Bona Forte lawn, are popular. The optimal time for introducing these compositions into the soil is the end of August - the beginning of September.
In addition, to make the green lawn happy next year, you can spray ash over it in the fall, which is also a good absorbent for harmful substances that can damage the appearance of your lawn. This procedure can be repeated in the spring after the snow melts.
Autumn fertilizers for the garden
In the fall, the harvest is usually already harvested. Of course, there are winter crops. For example, when planting winter garlic, the soil must be prepared in late August - early September. To do this, 10 kg of humus, 1 glass of chalk, 2 tbsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. superphosphate.
But it is unlikely that winter onions and garlic will occupy your entire garden. Therefore, the freed soil can be properly fertilized, without fear of burning the delicate roots of the plants. What kind of fertilizers does a garden need in the fall?
Organic fertilizers for the vegetable garden
Rotten manure or compost make every 3-4 years for digging at the rate of 3-4 kg per 1 sq. m.
Bird droppings - more concentrated fertilizer. Therefore, it is brought in at the rate of 2 kg per 1 square meter of the garden.
Soil fertilized ash, in the spring, cabbage will be especially liked.
Also, this fertilizer is applied when preparing a site for potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, radishes, dill, carrots, parsley, peas, beans, beets, watercress. If you apply ash every few years, about 1 kg can be consumed per 1 square meter. But if you feed the plants more often, 1 cup per square meter will be enough for most of your green pets. Ash is not only an excellent source of minerals, but also reduces soil acidity.
And in the case of onions and garlic, ash can be a prophylactic agent that protects against root rot. To do this, in the fall for digging, you can add up to 2 glasses of ash per 1 sq. M.
Siderata as an autumn fertilizer
Siderata are plants with a powerful root system and a rapidly growing green mass. They can be sown after harvest and then mowed and embedded in the soil. In the process of decomposition, such plants enrich the earth with nutrients.
Legumes (field peas, lentils, clover, annual lupine, spring vetch, alfalfa, sweet clover), cereals (spring oats and barley, millet, winter varieties of rye and wheat) can be used as siderates. Phacelia, sunflower, buckwheat, amaranth, marigolds have proven themselves well as green manure.
Mineral autumn fertilizers for the garden
The most popular fall fertilizer is superphosphate, which, due to its not too rapid decomposition, is excellent for application to the soil in the wettest season. Ordinary superphosphate is applied on average at the rate of 40-50 g per 1 sq. M, the rate of double superphosphate application is 20-30 g per 1 sq. M.
A classic autumn fertilizer is also potassium chloride... Before using it, it is important to carefully study the instructions in order to correctly calculate the dosage. But on average, they use about 10-20 g of fertilizer per 1 sq. M. It is recommended to wear goggles and a respirator when working with potassium chloride.
Potassium sulfate does not contain chlorine harmful to many plants. In autumn, the granules are usually embedded in the soil to a depth of 10-20 cm. Application rates depend on the plants that will grow in the future in this area. For cucumbers, on average, about 15 g per 1 square meter is applied, for tomatoes - 20 g, for cabbage and turnips - 25 g, for potatoes - 35 g.
Whatever fertilizer you choose for your garden, vegetable garden, flower garden or lawn, it is important to remember that the harvest will not be a joy if it brings harm instead of good. But, as you know, the amount of certain elements in similar, at first glance, fertilizers from different manufacturers may differ slightly. And even organic feeding in significant quantities can contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in the crop. An eloquent example of this is manure or chicken droppings. Therefore, when applying any autumn fertilizers to the soil, it is important to check the instructions or recommendations of experienced specialists, and also not to exceed the dosage in any case.